No. 5
September 2001
• web: www.learnworld.org
• email: gc.dd@learnworld.org
• last additions:
30 September 2001.
Hiroshima Dome Denuclearization Design 1st H-Bomb Test [1952]

DATES & REFERENCES:
2001.09.11 Tuesday
The World Trade Center and Pentagon are attacked. Many commentators observe how much more horrendous the carnage would have been had a nuclear weapon been used.

• All newspapers. 2001.09.12.


1st H-Bomb Test [1952]


PREVIOUS MONTHS:
July 2001


2001.07.06 Friday
Putin, through the Russian foreign ministry, proposes that N5/P5 begin a permanent consultation process on nuclear arms cuts and the ABM Treaty.

• Associated Press 2001.07.06.


2001.07.07 Saturday
The New York Times reports that GW Bush “has resolved to let the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty languish in the Senate” .

• Thom Shanker and David E. Sanger, “White House Wants to Bury Pact Banning Tests of Nuclear Arms”, The New York Times 2001.07.07.


2001.07.07 Saturday
François Heisbourg, in an op-ed piece, comments on the ‘possibility’ that the United States will join China and Iran in obstructing the proposed verification protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention.

• François Heisbourg, , “Biological Warfare: The Next U.S.-Europe Split?”, The International Herald Tribune 2001.07.07.


2001.07.12 Thursday
Pentagon announces plan to create missile ‘test’ installations in Alaska forthwith, promising prompt challenge to ABM Treaty.

• US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, Testimony on NMD before the Senate Armed Services Committee, 12 July 2001. And in pdf format.

• Lieutenant General Ronald T. Kadish, USAF, Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Testimony on NMD before the Senate Armed Services Committee, 12 July 2001 [in pdf format].


2001.07.28 Saturday
Admiral Sir Michael Boyce, Chief of the UK Defence Staff, commenting on NMD, says that “I have seen nothing yet to give me a technical description of what has been proposed.”

• Interviewer Richard Norton-Taylor writes that: “Britain's most senior military officer has expressed serious doubts about America’s missile defence project, saying he has seen no evidence the technology will work and warning it could have a potentially devastating impact on Britain’s own military capabilities.” The Guardian 28 July 2001.


June 2001


2001.06.12-
2001.06.16
Monday-Saturday
Bush undertakes 5-day trip to Spain, NATO [Brussels], EU [Goteberg], Poland, and Slovenia. In Slovenia, he holds his first talks with Russian President Putin.

• New York Times “Bush Runs Into Skepticism at NATO Over Missile Shield” 2001.06.13
• New York Times “Putin Urges Bush Not to Act Alone on Missile Shield” 2001.06.17
• New York Times “Putin Says Russia Would Counter US Shield” 2001.06.19
• Le Monde “Première rencontre Bush-Poutine : derrière les sourires, les désaccords” 2001.06.19


2001.06.24 Sunday
Colin Powell doubts Putin’s missile-defense warning.

• New York Times “Powell Dismisses Putin Warning on Missiles” 2001.06.24


1st H-Bomb Test [1952]
May 2001

2001.05.01 Tuesday
Bush sketches a missile-defense plan in speech at the National Defense University. [Full text.]

• New York Times reportage 2001.05.01
• New York Times military analysis 2001.05.02
• New York Times reportage 2001.05.02
• Richard Butler op-ed 2001.05.02
• Indian Government pre-speech alert 2001.05.02
• Guardian [UK] editorial 2001.05.02


2001.05.03 Thursday
EU delegation in North Korea. Kim Jong Il extends missile test moratorium to 2003, but refuses to abandon missile exports.

• New York Times reportage 2001.05.03
• New York Times reportage 2001.05.05


2001.05.08 Tuesday
Rumsfeld calls for combining many US military space programs but “stops short of advocating putting weapons in outer space.” [The New York Times]

• New York Times reportage 2001.05.09
• Associated Press reportage 2001.05.10, citing Lt. Gen. Robert Foglesong, Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and Space Operations: “If the policy decision is made to take our guns into space that will be decided by our civilian leadership.”


2001.05.09 Wednesday
Michael R. Gordon cites the ABM Treaty arguments as first signs of a “far-reaching debate over whether the United States should simply abandon the business of negotiating strategic arms treaties.”

• New York Times, Michael R. Gordon analysis 2001.05.09


2001.05.20 Sunday
Michael R. Gordon and Judith Miller report leak of confidential US interagency review that US should not sign proposed Bacteriological Warfare Convention enforcement Protocol.

• New York Times, Michael R. Gordon and Judith Miller 2001.05.20
• Arms Control Today May 2001: articles on the Chair's draft of the BWC Protocol


2001.05.24 Thursday
Senator Jeffords leaves Republicans and gives Democrats an organizational majority in the US Senate, with implications for NMD, arms control, and US global policy.


1st H-Bomb Test [1952]
  PAPERS

2001.09.27
Bruce D. Larkin, on nuclear weapons and the fight against ‘terrorism’
  “Nuclear Weapons and GW Bush’s ‘War on Terrorism’ ”



2001.09.30
Bruce D. Larkin, on the forthcoming ABM Treaty struggle
  “Treaty Abrogation and GW Bush’s Designs on the ABM Treaty”


LINKS TO CENTERS AND GROUPS WORKING IN ARMS CONTROL:
CENTERS & GROUPS JOURNALS
ACRONYM follows ongoing arms control and disarmament negotiations. Disarmament Diplomacy [ACRONYM]. Issue No. 59. July-August 2001. Contents
Arms Control Association [Washington] Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today Latest: May 2001.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace [New York] Non-Proliferation project.  
Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Monterey Institute of International Studies. [Monterey, California] Non-Proliferation Review. CNS/MIIS. Latest: Summer 2001
CIRPES [Paris]. CIRPES: Le Débat Stratégique. Monthly.   Most recent: No. 57, July 2001.
Global Beat Nuclear policy [Mark Hibbs’ review of events & news reports.]
National Security Archive [Washington, DC] studies, many based on declassified US documents.  
Nautilus Institute [Berkeley] specializes on Northeast Asia and nuclear policy. Nautilus: Nuclear Policy. Weekly.   Most recent. or the Archive.
Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation [Southampton] Mountbatten Centre for International Studies, University of Southampton  
SIPRI [Stockholm]: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook.
The Henry L. Stimson Center [Washington].  
Union of Concerned Scientists [Cambridge, Massachusetts] especially on missile defense and nuclear policy.  
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research [UNIDIR] [Geneva] Disarmament Forum [UNIDIR].

CHINA-RUSSIA FRIENDSHIP TREATY

[Note: The Editors have highlighted sections which bear most directly on nuclear weapons.]


TREATY OF GOOD-NEIGHBORLINESS AND FRIENDLY COOPERATION BETWEEN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

16 July 2001

On July l6, 2001, President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China and President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation signed the “Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation” in Moscow. Full text of the Treaty is as follows:

Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation

The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (hereafter known as the “contracting parties”),

In view of the historical tradition of good-neighborliness and friendship between the people of China and Russia,

Hold that the Sino-Russian Joint Declarations and Statements signed and adopted by the heads of states of the two countries from 1992 to 2000 which are of great significance to the development of bilateral relations,

Firmly believe that to consolidate the friendly and good neighborly ties and mutual cooperation in all fields between the two countries is in conformity with the fundamental interests of the peoples of the two countries and conducive to the maintenance of peace, security and stability in Asia and the world,

Reiterate the obligations committed by each party in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and other international treaties of which it is a signatory,

With the hope of promoting and establishing a just and fair new world order based on universally recognized principles and norms of international laws,

Endeavor to enhance relations between the two countries to a completely new level,

Determined to develop the friendship between the people of the two countries from generation to generation,

Have reached agreement as follows:

Article 1

In accordance with universally recognized principles and norms of international laws and on the basis of the Five Principles of mutual respect of state sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence, the contracting parties shall develops the strategic cooperative partnership of good-neighborliness, friendship and cooperation and equality and trust between the two countries from a long-term view and in a comprehensive manner.

Article 2

In handling their mutual relations, the contracting parties will neither resort to the use of force nor the threat of force nor take economic and other means to bring pressure to bear against the other. The contracting parties will only solve their differences through peaceful means by adhering to the provisions of the "United Nations Charter" and the principles and norms of universally recognized international laws. The contracting parties reaffirm their commitment that they will not be the first to use nuclear weapons against each other nor target strategic nuclear missiles against each other.

Article 3

The contracting parties respect each other's choice for the course of political, economic, social and cultural development in line with their nation's actual conditions so as to ensure a long-term and stable development of relations between the two countries.

Article 4

The Chinese side supports the Russian side in its policies on the issue of defending the national unity and territorial integrity of the Russian Federation. The Russian side supports the Chinese side in its policies on the issue of defending the national unity and territorial integrity of the People's Republic of China.

Article 5

The Russian side reaffirms that the principled stand on the Taiwan issue as expounded in the political documents signed and adopted by the heads of states of the two countries from 1992 to 2000 remain unchanged. The Russian side acknowledges that there is only one China in the world, that the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China and that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China. The Russian side opposes any form of Taiwan's independence.

Article 6

The contracting parties point out with satisfaction that each has no territorial claim on the other and both are resolved to make active efforts in building the border between the two countries into one where ever-lasting peace and friendship prevail. The contracting parties will adhere to the principles of non-encroachment upon territories and national boundaries as stipulated in international laws and strictly observe the national boundary between the two countries. The contracting parties shall continue to hold talks on the pending boundary alignment of the sectors which China and Russia have not yet arrived at an agreement through consultations. Prior to the settlement of these issues, the two sides will maintain the status quo in such boundary sectors.

Article 7

In accordance with the current agreements, the contracting parties shall adopt measures to increase trust between their militaries and reduce military forces in the border areas. The contracting parties shall expand and deepen confidence building measures in the military field so as to consolidate each other’s security and strengthen regional and international stability. The contracting parties shall make efforts to ensure its own national security in accordance with the principle of maintaining reasonable and adequate weapons and armed forces. The military and military technology cooperation of the contracting parties carried out in accordance with the relevant agreements are not directed at third countries.

Article 8

The contracting parties shall not enter into any alliance or be a party to any bloc nor shall they embark on any such action, including the conclusion of such treaty with a third country which compromises the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the other contracting party. Neither side of the contracting parties shall allow its territory to be used by a third country to jeopardize the national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the other contracting party. Neither side of the contracting parties shall allow the setting up of organizations or gangs on its own soil which shall impair the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the other contrasting party and their activities should be prohibited.

Article 9

When a situation arises in which one of the contracting parties deems that peace is being threatened and undermined or its security interests are involved or when it is confronted with the threat of aggression, the contracting parties shall immediately hold contacts and consultations in order to eliminate such threats.

Article 10

The contracting parties shall employ and perfect the mechanism for regular meetings at all levels, above all the summit and high-level meetings, to conduct periodic exchanges of views and co-ordinate their stand on bilateral ties and on important and urgent international issues of common concern so as to reinforce the strategic cooperative partnership of equality and trust.

Article 11

The contracting parties stand for the strict observation of universally acknowledged principles and norms of international laws and oppose any action of resorting to the use of force to bring pressure to bear on others or interfering in the internal affairs of a sovereign state under all sorts of pretexts and both are ready to make positive efforts to strengthen peace, stability, development and cooperation throughout the world.

The contracting parties are against any action which may constitute a threat to international stability, security and peace and will conduct mutual co-ordination with regard to the prevention of international conflicts and bringing about their political settlement.

Article 12

The contracting parties shall work together for the maintenance of global strategic balance and stability and make great efforts in promoting the observation of the basic agreements relevant to the safeguard and maintenance of strategic stability. The contracting parties shall actively promote the process of nuclear disarmament and the reduction of chemical weapons, promote and strengthen the regimes on the prohibition of biological weapons and take measures to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery and their related technology.

Article 13

The contracting parties shall strengthen their cooperation in the United Nations and its Security Council as well as other United Nations Special Agencies. The contracting parties shall work to reinforce the central role of the United Nations as the most authoritative and most universal world organization composed of sovereign states in handling international affairs, particularly in the realm of peace and development and guarantee the major responsibility of the UN Security Council in the area of maintaining international peace and security.

Article 14

The contracting parties shall energetically promote the consolidation of stability of the surrounding areas of the two countries, create an atmosphere of mutual understanding, trust and cooperation, and promote efforts aimed at setting up a multi-lateral co-ordination mechanism which complies with the actual situation of the above-mentioned areas on issues of security and cooperation.

Article 15

In accordance with the two countries' inter-governmental agreements concerned and other documents relating to the handling of creditor's rights and liabilities, each side of the contracting parties recognizes the lawful right of ownership of the assets and other properties which belong to the other side and which are located within the territory of the other contracting party.

Article 16

On the basis of mutual benefit, the contracting parties shall conduct cooperation in such areas as economy and trade, military know-how, science and technology, energy resources, transport, nuclear energy, finance, aerospace and aviation, information technology and other areas of common interest. They shall promote economic and trade cooperation in border areas and local regions between the two countries and create necessary and favorable conditions in this regard in accordance with the laws of each country. The contracting parties shall energetically enhance and develop exchanges and cooperation in culture, education, health, information, tourism, sports and legal matters. In accordance with their national laws and international treaties of which they are a party, the contracting parties shall protect and maintain intellectual property rights, including copyright and other relevant rights.

Article 17

The contracting parties shall conduct cooperation in world financial institutions, economic organizations and forums, and in line with the rules and regulations of the above-mentioned institutions, organizations and forums, make efforts to promote the participation of a contracting party in the above-mentioned institutions of which the other contracting party is already a member (or member state).

Article 18

The contracting parties shall cooperate in promoting the realization of human rights and fundamental freedom in accordance with the international obligations each is committed and the national laws of each country. In line with the international obligations each of the contracting parties is committed and the laws and regulations of each country, the contracting party shall take effective measures to guarantee the legal rights and interests of legal persons and natural persons of the other contracting party who reside within its territory, and provide the necessary legal assistance over civil and criminal matters. The departments concerned of the contracting parties, in accordance with relevant laws, shall conduct investigation and seek a solution to the problems and disputes arising from the process of carrying out cooperation and business activities by the legal persons and natural persons within the territory of the other side of the contracting parties.

Article 19

The contracting parties shall carry out cooperation in the protection and improvement of the environment, prevention of cross-border pollution, the fair and rational use of water resources along the border areas and the use of biological resources in the northern Pacific and boundary river areas; make joint efforts in protecting rare floras, faunas and the natural ecosystem, and conduct cooperation in preventing the outbreak of major accidents arising from natural disasters or due to technical reasons and eliminating their after--effects .

Article 20

The contracting parties, in accordance with the laws of each country and the international obligation each has committed, shall actively cooperate in cracking down terrorists, splittists and extremists, and in taking strong measures against criminal activities of organized crimes, illegal trafficking of drugs, psychotropic substances and weapons. The contracting parties shall conduct cooperation to crack down on illegal immigration, including the crack down on illegal transportation of natural persons via its territory.

Article 21

The contracting parties attach great importance to the exchanges and cooperation between the central (federal) legislative organs and law enforcement agencies of the two countries. The contracting parties shall promote with great efforts the exchanges and cooperation between the judicial organs of the two countries.

Article 22

This Treaty neither affects the rights and obligations of the contracting parties in other international treaties of which they are a party to it, nor is it directed against any third country.

Article 23

To implement the present Treaty, the contracting parties shall actively promote the signing of accords in specific realms which are of interests to both sides.

Article 24

This Treaty needs to be ratified and shall come into force from the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification. The exchange of instruments of ratification shall take place in Beijing.

Article 25

The term of validity of the present treaty is twenty years. If neither side of the contracting parties notify the other in writing of its desire to terminate the treaty one year before the treaty expires, the treaty shall automatically be extended for another five years and shall thereafter be continued in force in accordance with this provision. Done in Moscow on July 16, 2001 in two copies, each in the Chinese and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.

Representative of the People’s Republic of China

Jiang Zemin
      Representative of the Russian Federation

Vladimir Putin

Please comment Please note: Respect online ethics and abide by all relevant laws and regulations of the People's Republic of China. You have to shoulder all civil or criminal legal responsibilities incurred, directly or indirectly, by your act. BBS administrator has the right to save or delete your comments. If you submit a comment, then you have automatically read and agreed with the above articles.


www.fmprc.gov.cn

[Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China]


1st H-Bomb Test [1952]


  INDEX
Texts
 China-Russia Treaty, 2001.07.16

Links
 Documents
 Centers & Groups
 Dates & References
 Journals
 Pointers

Bibliographies
 Good Books: A Short List
 A Wider Bibliography

Archive
Prior GC.DD at close of month:
 GC.DD August 2001
 GC.DD July 2001
 GC.DD June 2001
 GC.DD May 2001

About Us
 Global Collaborative <GC.DD>
 Members

Return to Top
 Click on Any Image of the First H-Bomb Test
1st H-Bomb Test [1952]


POINTERS

NRDC has posted, and issued in hard copy in July 2001, The U.S. Nuclear War Plan: A Time for Change, addressing the SIOP. It incorporates results of an ingenious NRDC simulation of the effects of nuclear attacks.
ACRONYM reports US and global comment on Younger Bush missile defense speech: numerous, sourced summaries.
CNS issued this report by Tariq Rauf on 2001.05.11: Towards NPT 2005: An Action Plan for the ‘13-Steps’ Towards Nuclear Disarmament Agreed at NPT 2000.

The Global Collaborative

Denuclearization Design  supports ongoing teaching and research of participants in the Global Collaborative on Denuclearization Design <GC.DD>, a voluntary research group whose members work within and outside the academy.

This page is ‘open’ for additions and changes until the end of the month, when it is archived and a new page opened.

Please direct inquiries, comments, and suggested additions to gc.dd@learnworld.org

Editorial Committee

Convenor: Bruce D. Larkin
Executive Editor: G. Allen Greb


PRIOR GC.DD PAPERS:
2001.09.15: Bruce D. Larkin, “Contrary Maxims: Can We Live With Anarcho- Unilateralism?”.
1st H-Bomb Test [1952]
2001 DOCUMENTS:
2001.01.11: Report of the Commission to Assess United States National Security, Space Management, and Organization [Rumsfeld Commission 2001][pdf]
2001.05.02: George W. Bush Speech at NDU on Missile Defense
2001.06.08: French President Jacques Chirac’s remarks on French defense and nuclear policy, delivered to the IHEDN. Or you may read a version with highlighting by GC.DD to signal key remarks relevant to denuclearization [in pdf format].
2001.07.12: Paul Wolfowitz Testimony on NMD. And in pdf format.
2001.07.12: Lieutenant General Ronald T. Kadish, USAF, Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Testimony on NMD [in pdf format].
2001.07.16: Sino-Russian Treaty, 16 July 2001 in a side-by-side Chinese and English version (which requires a browser which can display Chinese simplified characters). Or consult the English version.
RETROSPECTIVES:
1996.09.19: White House. National Science and Technology Council. “Fact Sheet: National Space Policy”. This document stipulates that “Consistent with treaty obligations, the United States will develop, operate and maintain space control capabilities to ensure freedom of action in space and, if directed, deny such freedom of action to adversaries.”
1983.03.23: Ronald Reagan 23 March 1983 “Star Wars” speech
1945: Documents on the Decision to Use Atomic Bombs on the Cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. [Gene Dannen’s site.]
1st H-Bomb Test [1952]