DATES & REFERENCES 2002:
• CIA Summary, 2002.01.09..
• Department of Defense NPR briefing transcript, 2002.01.09..
• The New York Times, 2002.02.26..
• James Glantz, Almost All in U.S. Have Been Exposed to Fallout, Study Finds, The New York Times, 2002.03.01. A graphic is especially clear [although miscaptioned, corrected later], and did not note that the original report is dated August 2001. [The correct title is shown in the next entry.]
• A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES TO THE AMERICAN POPULATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER NATIONS, 2001.08. A map, reproduced in the Times account, shows Preliminary estimates of the total dose (milliGray [mGy]) to the red bone marrow of children born 1 January 1951 from NTS and global fallout for all radionuclides. The draft Technical Report will be peer reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Assessment of CDC Radiation Studies. . . .In addition, the Technical Report will be available in draft for public review on the Internet at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/default.htm. As of 1 March 2002 the Technical Report was not yet posted.
• UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, v I, Sources and v II, Effects.
• William M. Arkin, Commentary: Secret Plan Outlines the Unthinkable, Los Angeles Times, 2002.03.10.
With respect to reports that somehow we are thinking of preemptively going after somebody or that, in one editorial I read this morning, we have lowered the nuclear threshold, we have done no such thing.
[Reporter Don Gonyea: But Powell also had this to say regarding what this report means to countries trying to acquire or develop weapons of mass destruction.]
It does not seem to us to be a bad thing for them to look out from their little countries and their little capitals, and see a United States that has a full range of options, an American president that has a full range of options available to him, to deter in the first instance, and to defend the United States of America, and the American people, our way of life, and our friends and allies.
• Powells recorded voice is reproduced on the NPR site, in a segment on the NPR during the program Morning Edition. http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/me/20020313.me.04.ram, 2002.03.13.
• The New York Times, 2002.04.15.
• United Kingdom. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention: Countering the Threat from Biological Weapons,. 2002.04.29. [pdf document].
• GW Bush comments at the White House, 2002.05.13..
• Michael R. Gordon, The New York Times, 2002.05.14, Treaty Offers Pentagon New Flexibility..
• Treaty text..
Editors Note: The text of the proposed US-Russian treaty on nuclear reductions is now public. It is a thin document. Significantly:
The preamble includes a nod to the key denuclearization article of the NPT: Mindful of their obligations under Article VI . . . .
Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions
The United States of America and the Russian Federation, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,
Embarking upon the path of new relations for a new century and committed to the goal of strengthening their relationship through cooperation and friendship,
Believing that new global challenges and threats require the building of a qualitatively new foundation for strategic relations between the Parties,
Desiring to establish a genuine partnership based on the principles of mutual security, cooperation, trust, openness, and predictability,
Committed to implementing significant reductions in strategic offensive arms,
Proceeding from the Joint Statements by the President of the United States of America and the President of the Russian Federation on Strategic Issues of July 22, 2001 in Genoa and on a New Relationship between the United States and Russia of November 13, 2001 in Washington,
Mindful of their obligations under the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms of July 31, 1991, hereinafter referred to as the START Treaty,
Mindful of their obligations under Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of July 1, 1968, and
Convinced that this Treaty will help to establish more favourable conditions for actively promoting security and cooperation, and enhancing international stability,
Have agreed as follows:
Each Party shall reduce and limit strategic nuclear warheads, as stated by the President of the United States of America on November 13, 2001 and as stated by the President of the Russian Federation on November 13, 2001 and December 13, 2001 respectively, so that by December 31, 2012 the aggregate number of such warheads does not exceed 1700-2200 for each Party. Each Party shall determine for itself the composition and structure of its strategic offensive arms, based on the established aggregate limit for the number of such warheads.
The Parties agree that the START Treaty remains in force in accordance with its terms.
For purposes of implementing this Treaty, the Parties shall hold meetings at least twice a year of a Bilateral Implementation Commission.
1. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Party. This Treaty shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of instruments of ratification.
2. This Treaty shall remain in force until December 31, 2012 and may be extended by agreement of the Parties or superseded earlier by a subsequent agreement.
3. Each Party, in exercising its national sovereignty, may withdraw from this Treaty upon three months written notice to the other Party.
This Treaty shall be registered pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
• US-Russian nuclear weapon treaty text [24 May 2002].
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